DATA AND INFORMATION
A collection of non formal meaningless and disorganized items.
How Data are formed
- Numeral (0 – 9)
- Characters ( a – z)
- Codes (,.:;)
- Special Characters (@ ! #)
Classification of data
- Quantitative Data – Can be presented quantitatively.
- Qualitative Data – Cannot be presented numerically Ex: shapes, colors, sound.
Nature of Data
- The ability to gather, store, process, and retrieve data in a timely manner is vital
- Well managed data can
– save time and money
– increase productivity
– enhance decision making
Data arranged to be meaningful to a relevant individual, is called information.
Factors that improve the quality of information
- make of communication
- Time Horizon
Properties of Information
Information is true or false; accurate or inaccurate
This is described in terms of qualitative and quantitative, numerical and graphic, summary and detailed.
This is a measure of how often information is needed, collected or produced.
This defines the scope of information
Information may origin from sources inside the organization or outside.
6) Time horizon
Information may be oriented toward the past, toward current event or toward future activities and events.
- Meaningless data becomes information when it is processed and presented to the decision maker in a meaningful way.
- Only when the input (data) is accurate, timely, and reliable will the output (information be useful) and reliable