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A collection of non formal meaningless and disorganized items.

How Data are formed

  1. Text
    • Numeral  (0 – 9)
    • Characters ( a – z)
    • Codes (,.:;)
    • Special Characters  (@ ! #)
  2. Visual
  3. Audio

Classification of data

  1. Quantitative Data – Can be presented quantitatively.
  2. Qualitative Data – Cannot be presented numerically Ex: shapes, colors, sound.

Nature of Data

  • The ability to gather, store, process, and retrieve data in a timely manner is vital
  • Well managed data can

–        save time and money

–        increase productivity

–        enhance decision making



Data arranged to be meaningful to a relevant individual, is called information.

Factors that improve the quality of information

  1. relevance
  2. clarity
  3. accuracy
  4. completeness
  5. make of communication
  6. Time Horizon

Properties of Information

1) Accuracy

Information is true or false; accurate or inaccurate

2) Form

This is described in terms of  qualitative and quantitative, numerical and graphic, summary and detailed.

3) Frequency

This is a measure of how often information is needed, collected or produced.

4) Breadth

This defines the scope of information

5) Origin

Information may origin from sources inside the organization or outside.

6) Time horizon

Information may be oriented toward the past, toward current event or toward future activities and events.


Data  Information

  • Meaningless data becomes information when it is processed and presented to the decision maker in a meaningful way.
  • Only when the  input (data) is accurate, timely, and reliable will the output (information be useful) and reliable




  • raw facts
  • no context
  • just numbers and text
  • data with context
  • processed data
  • value-added to data
  1.                summarized
  2.                organized
  3.                analyzed





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